Ancient Natural History

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By , cosmetics are in widespread use around the world, including the United States. This gain in disposable income, with more discretion over its use, leads to a boom in domestic cosmetics sales. Constitution, commonly known as Prohibition. As originally drafted, the Amendment might have outlawed perfumes and toilet goods because of their alcohol content. The concept of color harmony in makeup was introduced simultaneously, and major cosmetics companies began producing integrated lines of lipsticks, fingernail lacquers, and foundations.

When she arrived home, her fans apparently liked the look and started to adopt darker skin tones themselves.

Until World War II, women tended to use an entire lipstick or bottle of nail polish before purchasing a new one. When actresses started taking it home for personal use, he realized his new invention looked wonderful both on and off camera and decided to introduce pancake makeup to the general retail trade. Despite its relative ineffectiveness, this development leads to the invention of Glacier Cream by Austrian scientist, Franz Greiter. Introduced in , this product is cited as the first commercially viable sun protection cream.

In , Greiter introduced the concept for the Sun Protection Factor rating system SPF , which has since become the worldwide standard for measuring the effectiveness of sunscreen.

Campbell is appointed the first Commissioner of Food and Drugs. False eyelashes became popular. The environmental movement brings challenges to the cosmetics and fragrance industry.

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The use of some popular ingredients, including musk and ambergris, is banned following the enactment of endangered species protection legislation. The goal of the CIR is to bring together worldwide published and unpublished data on the safety of cosmetics ingredients, and for an independent expert panel to subsequently review that data.

The seven-member panel consists of scientists and physicians from the fields of dermatology, pharmacology, chemistry, and toxicology selected by a steering committee and publicly nominated by government agencies, industry, and consumers. The panel thoroughly reviews and assesses the safety of ingredients and ultimately publishes the final results in the peer-reviewed International Journal of Toxicology.

Today, CIR has reviewed thousands of the most commonly used cosmetics ingredients. Instead, the new order of the day was to experiment with heavy layers of bold, bright colors. Smokey eyes in bright colors such as fuchsia, electric blue, orange, and green were hugely popular.

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Concerns about contaminated makeup emerged late in the decade. An FDA report in found that more than five percent of cosmetics samples collected from department store counters were contaminated with mold, fungi, and pathogenic organisms. Its mission is to promote and support research in animal testing alternatives. In June , Avon became the first major cosmetics company in the world to announce a permanent end to animal testing of its products, including testing done in outside laboratories.

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Hall of Ancient Egypt

In modern Europe , professional disciplines such as botany, geology, mycology , palaeontology , physiology and zoology were formed. Natural history , formerly the main subject taught by college science professors, was increasingly scorned by scientists of a more specialized manner and relegated to an "amateur" activity, rather than a part of science proper.

In Victorian Scotland it was believed that the study of natural history contributed to good mental health. Still, the traditions of natural history continue to play a part in the study of biology, especially ecology the study of natural systems involving living organisms and the inorganic components of the Earth's biosphere that support them , ethology the scientific study of animal behavior , and evolutionary biology the study of the relationships between life-forms over very long periods of time , and re-emerges today as integrative organismal biology. Amateur collectors and natural history entrepreneurs played an important role in building the world's large natural history collections, such as the Natural History Museum, London , and the National Museum of Natural History in Washington D.

The understanding of "Nature" as "an organism and not as a mechanism" can be traced to the writings of Alexander von Humboldt Prussia, — Natural history museums , which evolved from cabinets of curiosities , played an important role in the emergence of professional biological disciplines and research programs. Particularly back in the 19th century, scientists began to use their natural history collections as teaching tools for advanced students and the basis for their own morphological research.

The term "natural history" alone, or sometimes together with archaeology, forms the name of many national, regional and local natural history societies that maintain records for animals including birds ornithology , insects entomology and mammals mammalogy , fungi mycology , plants botany and other organisms. They may also have geological and microscopical sections.

Many civil servants took an interest in their new surroundings, sending specimens back to museums in Britain. See also: Indian natural history. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Study of organisms including plants or animals in their environment.


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For other uses, see Natural history disambiguation. For other uses, see Naturalist disambiguation. Further information: List of natural history museums. Evolutionary history of life History of evolutionary thought Naturalism philosophy Nature documentary Nature study Nature timeline Nature writing Russian naturalists Terra: The Nature of Our World video podcast Timeline of natural history.

Natural History WordNet Search, princeton. Linnaeus: Nature and Nation. Harvard: Harvard University Press. S Wilcove and T.

Eternal Life in Ancient Egypt | Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

G Herman, "Wildlife biology and natural history: time for a reunion", The Journal of wildlife management 66, no. Fleischner, "Natural history and the spiral of offering", Wild Earth 11, no. Natural History: A Selection. Penguin Classics. Gracewing Publishing. Retrieved 31 March Retrieved January 23, West Midland Bird Club. Archived from the original on 23 May Retrieved 11 February Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.

Kohler, Robert E. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

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Mayr, Ernst. Written by leading scholars, this richly illustrated volume offers a lively introduction to the history of natural history, from the sixteenth century to the present day. Covering an extraordinary range of topics, from curiosity cabinets and travelling menageries to modern seed banks and radio-tracked wildlife, this volume draws together the work of historians of science, of environment and of art, museum curators and literary scholars.


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  • The essays are framed by an introduction charting recent trends in the field and an epilogue outlining the prospects for the future.