Aunt Florentines Story
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She said that the knitting almost felt like a cushion and was socially more acceptable. When they finally arrived at the hotel after fighting their way down the congested autostrada A11, Carlina gave a quick prayer of thanks. With a happy sigh, she looked at the familiar facade of the small hotel. It was a squat stone house, broader than it was high, though it had two upper levels, and it was painted in the colors so typical of Tuscany: Burnt orange with dark-green wooden shutters.
One side of the house was covered with ivy up to the roof. The curlicued letters that proclaimed the name of the hotel, Albergo Giardino, were painted onto the facade in the same dark-green tone as the shutters, with a slim golden stripe on top, as if the sun had just set behind it. Leafy olive trees surrounded the hotel, their foliage like silvery-green clouds. On the terrace, four huge terracotta pots that reached up to her hips overflowed with blooming bougainvillea. Carlina breathed in the tranquil elegance and sheer beauty of the grounds. It was amazing how it brought back all the happy summers she had spent here.
Yes, those had been happy times. The family poured into the small lobby like a wave. Aunt Violetta entered first in her wheelchair, pushed by Omar. Next came Uncle Teo. Carlina had taken his arm to help him down from the small bus and was still holding it when she saw the employee who stood behind the reception desk.
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She gasped and involuntarily took a step back. You must be mistaken, young man! What happened to Signor Alberi? He always made sure that I got the room I needed. You were probably not told that you had to reserve room number four for me. The clerk looked at her without any expression whatsoever on his face. You will not find a free room anywhere, let alone eight. Seaside Death.
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Temptation in Florence 5. Seaside Death is the fifth in the series Temptation in Florence. Full Length Book. Aunt Violetta now whispered something into his ear. She gave him a satisfied nod and stuffed the bag behind her back. Carlina lifted her voice. Everything is perfect. Carlina grinned. Stefano looked at her. So you have to accept it when I tell you that room number four is not free. Although discovery of the Ancient world was a decisive factor in the ensuing artistic direction of the early Renaissance, at this stage knowledge of it appears not to have been absorbed, nor its models or prototypes adopted, in this area of architecture Oxford Classical Dictionary, London , the entries: agriculture p.
Many regional areas reveal differences of this kind: cascine in the Po Valley, corti around Mantua, the Roman vigne, and casene and bagli around Palermo. In these examples the name frequently refers to some earlier tradition, predating the heyday of the villa which lacked this centuries-old historical background.
This connection was given concrete form by the enclosure surrounding all the components of a villa, whether physically or structurally orchestrated, or in simple paratactic order. In both Republican, more recent late-Roman times, and obviously in Africa, this enclosure had a defensive purpose, so there is good reason to hold that the villa is an antecedent of the feudal castle.
But even without a defensive purpose, an established enclosure still serves to mark a boundary, besides safeguarding privacy. Ackerman has pointed out early Renaissance architects were quite unfamiliar with the appearance of a Roman villa. The only writer to offer detailed descriptions of large and sumptuous villas is Pliny the Younger. II: The Renaissance and Mannerism. See also L. Also anni di Vitruvio. Undoubtedly, we should not underestimate the role of ideological consolidation that the knowledge of antiquity came to play in trends that were already beginning to emerge, allowing, among other things, interesting analogies to be made between the past and present, in the dual role of the villa as both a place of retreat and a centre of agricultural exploitation.
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Patzak, Palast und Villa in Toscana, Leipzig Ackerman, Sources of the Renaissance Villa, op. Right: Reconstruction of the second panel by Filippo Brunelleschi with the perspective view of Piazza della Signoria; sketch by Baldassarre Peruzzi of a thermal bath in Villa Adriana at Tivoli; Sebastiano Serlio, some examples for central plan churches.
Medieval man had always sought to avoid relating architectural issues with theoretical speculation. Projects were evaluated on the basis of empirical considerations, as a sequence of choices between alternatives of equal weight and possibility. If at times this choice fell to geometrical schemes and proportional calculations, these had a religious or cabalistic meaning, or were simply for structural convenience.
On the other hand, according to humanistic theories, every single problem can be seen as a particular case of a more general problem, dependent on precise laws from which it acquires internal measure and congruence. Perspective, in general use beginning in , provided the possibility of rationally controlling space, and of dominating it on the paper and in the real world.
In the perspective system, for example, from reduction in size one can deduct the distance between objects. One of the consequences of this technique is that reality is no longer a simple inventory of things, but a system of relations. The idea of the project presupposes the concept of creative invention, while the drawing makes communication possible.
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Artists now signed their own works, and they established solid allegiances with the new moneyed aristocracy in Florence and abroad. Both components of the new method — the geometric theory of perspective and the reference to the normalized elements of antiquity — represented a fundamental break with and reaction against the imperial practices of the Middle Ages. Regularity, symmetry, proportion now had to govern all architectural design. Alberti mentions in his Book VII ch.
Such examples are not chosen at random but with the purpose of demonstrating that the laws of beauty are eternal. Return to precise outlines, and concern for regularity led inevitably to a search for symmetry. Every building, church, palace or suburban villa, was based on an axis or two perpendicular axes. According to the principle of regularity in classical architecture the bays of colonnades are all equal, and this allowed easily to emphasize the axis. Proportion, or the relationship between dimensions, was one of the overriding concerns of the Renaissance.
Alberti went back to classical theories of harmony and proportions: architecture would possess the same natural harmony as music, and the idea that the two arts were interconnected became current in treatises on harmony. Peter in Rome. The orders, at once a system of proportion and of decoration, were the basic structure of the new language. Annunziata in Florence which he designed in with a portico with columns, used to support round arches.
The centralized plan became the standard plan for the votive church being built all over Italy. Giuliano da Sangallo, the architect of the Medici villa in Poggio a Caiano, designed the perfect example of a church based on a Greek cross in Santa Maria delle Carceri in Prato. In the sacristy of San Lorenzo a Medici funerary chapel Brunelleschi adopted a square plan covered by a dome, producing a variant of this in the Pazzi Chapel in Santa Croce. In smaller buildings he used the centralized plan that is, a single space that could be enclosed within a circle which had virtually disappeared since the days of the Romanesque baptistry.
The palace or palazzo is the most important type of civil building. Traditionally, the palace was a block built round a central courtyard, looking very massive from the outside, but with plenty of loggias and balconies opening on to the courtyard. Florentine palazzi retained their austere exteriors, making extensive use of rusticated stone. The palazzi built at the middle of the 15th century for the most important families of the city, such as Rucellai, Strozzi, Pitti, Tornabuoni, Medici, are intended as monuments to express, through their monumental shape and size, the power and the role of the family.
But Cosimo the Elder refused the project, preferring the more conservative one made by Michelozzo in His design, in spite of its stereometric block and the adoption of classical elements, is really a clearer elaboration of the medieval palace. With palazzo Medici, Michelozzo set a model which was to be widely followed; the most celebrated example being the Strozzi palace, built by Benedetto da Maiano and Simone Pollaiolo in But palazzo Pitti was never used as a reference type.
The presence of the courtyard is characteristic of the earliest structures and may be directly derived from urban models. Eberlein forms an intriguing, if hard to prove, hypothesis that the Tuscan villa is derived from the Etruscan farmhouse, based on the continuation of characteristic features such as the courtyard and loggia. See also K. The whole place was decorated and they were seated on a loggia overlooking the central court. Boccaccio, The Decameron, English trans. McWilliam, London , p. The Castel Pulci villa, the property of the Riccardi family, is an example of the doubling of an L-shaped layout, in which one L-shaped structure with an arcade and loggia encloses the courtyard, and the other a walled garden.
soilstones.com/wp-content/2020-01-06/3371.php Lastly, the linear layout, with a courtyard dividing the two main bodies of a building, was the plan of the Marignolle 45 Florentine Villa. The plan of the Trebbio villa consists of an irregular main body round a closed courtyard and an incorporated tower rising from the south-west corner.