Focus: Music of South Africa: A Century of Traditions in Transformation (Focus on World Music Series)
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Carl Sandburg often traveled the U. He also collected songs in his travels and, in , published them in the book The American Songbag. This was the final element of the foundation upon which the early folk music revivalists constructed their own view of Americanism. Sandburg's working class Americans joined with the ethnically , racially , and regionally diverse citizens that other scholars, public intellectuals, and folklorists celebrated their own definitions of the American folk, definitions that the folk revivalists used in constructing their own understanding of American folk music, and an overarching American identity".
Prior to the s, the study of folk music was primarily the province of scholars and collectors. The s saw the beginnings of larger scale themes, commonalities, themes and linkages in folk music developing in the populace and practitioners as well, often related to the Great Depression. During this time folk music began to become enmeshed with political and social activism themes and movements. Communist Party's interest in folk music as a way to reach and influence Americans,  and politically active prominent folk musicians and scholars seeing communism as a possible better system, through the lens of the Great Depression.
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Folk music festivals proliferated during the s. Louis, Missouri in The American folk music revivalists of the s approached folk music in different ways. Sarah Gertrude Knott and John Lomax emphasized the preservation of songs as artifacts of deceased cultures. Botkin and Alan Lomax maintained that songs only retain relevance when utilized by those cultures which retain the traditions which birthed those songs. Charles Seeger and Lawrence Gellert emphasized music's role "in 'people's' struggles for social and political rights". Sometimes folk musicians became scholars and advocates themselves.
For example, Jean Ritchie born in was the youngest child of a large family from Viper, Kentucky that had preserved many of the old Appalachian traditional songs. Ritchie, living in a time when the Appalachians had opened up to outside influence, was university educated and ultimately moved to New York City, where she made a number of classic recordings of the family repertoire and published an important compilation of these songs.
See also Hedy West [ why? In January , the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress , with the Association for Cultural Equity, announced that they would release Lomax's vast archive of and later recording in digital form. Lomax spent the last 20 years of his life working on an interactive multimedia educational computer project he called the Global Jukebox , which included 5, hours of sound recordings, , feet of film , 3, videotapes , and 5, photographs.
Approximately 17, of Lomax's recordings from and later have been made available free online. Africa is a vast continent and its regions and nations have distinct musical traditions. The music of North Africa for the most part has a different history from Sub-Saharan African music traditions. The music and dance forms of the African diaspora , including African American music and many Caribbean genres like soca , calypso and Zouk ; and Latin American music genres like the samba , Cuban rumba , salsa ; and other clave rhythm -based genres, were founded to varying degrees on the music of African slaves , which has in turn influenced African popular music.
However, cultures that do not depend greatly upon notation and have much anonymous art music must distinguish the two in different ways from those suggested by western scholars. Archaeological discoveries date Chinese folk music back years; it is largely based on the pentatonic scale. Han traditional weddings and funerals usually include a form of oboe called a suona and apercussive ensembles called a chuigushou.
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Ensembles consisting of mouth organs sheng , shawms suona , flutes dizi and percussion instruments especially yunluo gongs are popular in northern villages; their music is descended from the imperial temple music of Beijing , Xi'an , Wutai shan and Tianjin. Xi'an drum music, consisting of wind and percussive instruments, is popular around Xi'an, and has received some commercial popularity outside of China.
Another important instrument is the sheng , pipes , an ancient instrument that is ancestor of all Western free reed instruments, such as the accordion. In southern Fujian and Taiwan , Nanyin or Nanguan is a genre of traditional ballads. They are sung by a woman accompanied by a xiao and a pipa , as well as other traditional instruments.
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The music is generally sorrowful and typically deals with a love-stricken women. Further south, in Shantou , Hakka and Chaozhou , erxian and zheng ensembles are popular. Sizhu ensembles use flutes and bowed or plucked string instruments to make harmonious and melodious music that has become popular in the West among some listeners. These are popular in Nanjing and Hangzhou , as well as elsewhere along the southern Yangtze area. Sizhu has been secularized in cities but remains spiritual in rural areas. Jiangnan Sizhu silk and bamboo music from Jiangnan is a style of instrumental music, often played by amateur musicians in tea houses in Shanghai ; it has become widely known outside of its place of origin.
Guangdong Music or Cantonese Music is instrumental music from Guangzhou and surrounding areas. It is based on Yueju Cantonese Opera music, together with new compositions from the s onwards. Many pieces have influences from jazz and Western music, using syncopation and triple time. This music tells stories, myths and legends.
The genre of Sri Lankan music is known as Oriental music. The folk songs and poems were used in social gatherings to work together. The Indian influenced classical music has grown to be unique. The temple paintings and carvings used birds, elephants, wild animals, flowers and trees, and the Traditional 18 Dances display the dancing of birds and animals. For example:. The classical Sinhalese Orchestra consists of five categories of instruments, but among the percussion instruments , the drum is essential for dance.
The dancers feet bounce off the floor and they leap and swirl in patterns that reflect the complex rhythms of the drum beat. This drum beat may seem simple on the first hearing but it takes a long time to master the intricate rhythms and variations, which the drummer sometimes can bring to a crescendo of intensity.
There are six common types of drums falling within 3 styles one-faced, two-faced, and flat-faced :. Folk song traditions were taken to Australia by early settlers from England, Scotland and Ireland and gained particular foothold in the rural outback. The rhyming songs, poems and tales written in the form of bush ballads often relate to the itinerant and rebellious spirit of Australia in The Bush , and the authors and performers are often referred to as bush bards.
Several collectors have catalogued the songs including John Meredith whose recording in the s became the basis of the collection in the National Library of Australia. The songs tell personal stories of life in the wide open country of Australia. Typical subjects include mining, raising and droving cattle, sheep shearing , wanderings, war stories, the Australian shearers' strike , class conflicts between the landless working class and the squatters landowners , and outlaws such as Ned Kelly , as well as love interests and more modern fare such as trucking.
Indigenous Australian music includes the music of Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders , who are collectively called Indigenous Australians ; it incorporates a variety of distinctive traditional music styles practiced by Indigenous Australian peoples, as well as a range of contemporary musical styles of and fusion with European traditions as interpreted and performed by indigenous Australian artists. Music has formed an integral part of the social , cultural and ceremonial observances of these peoples, down through the millennia of their individual and collective histories to the present day.
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The traditional forms include many aspects of performance and musical instrumentation unique to particular regions or Indigenous Australian groups. Equal elements of musical tradition are common through much of the Australian continent, and even beyond. The culture of the Torres Strait Islanders is related to that of adjacent parts of New Guinea and so their music is also related.
Music is a vital part of Indigenous Australians' cultural maintenance. Celtic music is a term used by artists, record companies, music stores and music magazines to describe a broad grouping of musical genres that evolved out of the folk musical traditions of the Celtic peoples. Asturian and Galician music is often included, though there is no significant research showing that this has any close musical relationship.
These bands were rooted, to a greater or lesser extent, in a tradition of Irish music and benefited from the efforts of artists such as Seamus Ennis and Peter Kennedy. These artists have also been commercially successful in continental Europe and North America.
During the Communist era national folk dancing in the Eastern Bloc was actively promoted by the state.
Dance troupes from Russia and Poland toured non-communist Europe from about to The Red Army Choir recorded many albums. Eastern Europe is also the origin of the Jewish Klezmer tradition. The polka is a central European dance and also a genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia. German Volkslieder perpetuated by Liederhandschriften manuscripts like Carmina Burana date back to medieval Minnesang and Meistersinger traditions. Those folk songs revived in the late 18th century period of German Romanticism , first promoted by Johann Gottfried Herder and other advocates of the Enlightenment , later compiled by Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano Des Knaben Wunderhorn as well as by Ludwig Uhland.
The Volksmusik and folk dances genre, especially in the Alpine regions of Bavaria , Austria , Switzerland Kuhreihen and South Tyrol , up to today has lingered in rustic communities against the backdrop of industrialisation —Low German shanties or the Wienerlied Schrammelmusik being notable exceptions. Slovene folk music in Upper Carniola and Styria also originated from the Alpine traditions. The movement spread to ethnic Hungarian communities elsewhere in the world. Balkan folk music was influenced by the mingling of Balkan ethnic groups in the period of Ottoman Empire.
Some music is characterised by complex rhythm. An important part of the whole Balkan folk music is the music of the local Romani ethnic minority. Nordic folk music includes a number of traditions in Northern European , especially Scandinavian , countries.